The conventional view of wage gaps between men and women is that they have been steadily narrowing over recent decades and this trend will inevitably continue as women achieve higher education levels and enter areas of the workforce which have been dominated by males in the past. Unfortunately recent evidence from Indonesia suggests that pay parity between the sexes remains some way off.
Kiyoshi is currently a country economist at Pakistan Resident Mission, overseeing Afghanistan and Pakistan economies. He led the team to formulate the Pakistan Country Partnership Strategy 2021 – 2025. In his 15 years at ADB, he has also carried out economic analysis for the Pacific Department as well as Private Sector Operations Department and worked at the Uzbekistan Resident Mission, where he led a team of economists for Central Asia and the South Caucasus. Prior to ADB, he has worked for World Bank’s Indonesia Country Office and began his career as a development economist at the UN Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome, Italy. He has also taught development economics at International University of Japan, Westminster International University in Tashkent, and University of the Philippines Diliman.
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Conditional cash transfer programs, in coordination with strategic policies, can improve the educational opportunities of millions of children in Pakistan, especially girls.
Enrollment has improved greatly in Pakistan in recent decades but quality and equity still needs to be addressed. Partnering with private companies could speed the process.
The country needs to focus on improving education and skills training to improve job quality and quantity.
Myanmar opened a new chapter in its history in November 2010 when it adopted its open-economy policy. Since then, an impressive array of reforms have been implemented. However, Myanmar’s sustainable and inclusive growth depends on it maintaining this momentum during its transition —particularly inflows of foreign direct investment.