Beyond Tourism: Diversifying the Maldivian Economy for a Sustainable Future

Maldives needs to expand sectors such as fishing and agriculture so it relies less on tourism. Photo: ADB
Maldives needs to expand sectors such as fishing and agriculture so it relies less on tourism. Photo: ADB

By Elisabetta Gentile, Natalia Valencia Abaigar, Macrina Mallari

The pandemic, which devastated the tourism industry worldwide, illustrated the importance of Maldives diversifying its economy to sectors other than tourism and travel.

 During the pandemic, Maldives faced an unprecedented challenge as its tourism industry shut down. Tourist arrivals plummeted by 67.4% and the economy contracted by 32.9%, the deepest recession on record. This external shock underscored the fragility of the Maldives' economy, which is heavily dependent on tourism and highlighted the urgent need for economic diversification. 

Historically, fishing and agriculture were the main economic activities in Maldives. In 1980, both were contributing 35% of GDP together while the tourism contribution was 13%. In recent years, these industries have decreased their GDP share while the government focus on tourism has led to the industry directly accounting for more than 20% of the country's GDP with a projected indirect contribution of 79% in 2022. 

The need to diversify the Maldivian economy is imperative for several reasons. Firstly, heavy reliance on a single sector makes the economy vulnerable to external shocks, such as disasters triggered by natual hazards, political instability, or, as shown during the pandemic, by global health crises. Economic diversification can help mitigate the adverse effects of such shocks by distributing risk across various sectors.

Secondly, diversification can create a more sustainable and inclusive economy by fostering growth in multiple sectors. A diverse economy can offer a broader range of job opportunities, attracting a skilled workforce and reducing unemployment rates. This, in turn, enhances societal stability and ensures a better quality of life for the Maldivian population.

Several strategies can be employed to diversify the Maldivian economy, covering both manufacturing opportunities and the service sector development.

 Despite the decrease in GDP contribution, the fisheries industry continues to be a vital component of the Maldivian economy. Maldives can diversify its fisheries exports through value addition and market differentiation by focusing on high-quality, sustainably caught seafood, expanding processing, and packaging capabilities, and targeting niche markets for premium seafood products.  


With its abundant marine resources and suitable climate, Maldives can also diversify its economy by promoting sustainable marine tourism, investing in aquaculture and sustainable fisheries, and exploring marine biotechnology and renewable energy opportunities. The country can harness its abundant solar, wind, and ocean energy to meet its power needs sustainably. 

By investing in renewable energy infrastructure, the nation can reduce its dependence on costly imported fossil fuels and create a new sector for innovation, investment, and job growth.

Embracing the digital age by promoting IT and e-commerce sectors can also create new opportunities for Maldives. A tech-savvy workforce can offer services to a global market, attracting investments and diversifying revenue streams. To promote these sectors, investing in education and skill development programs is key as it ensures the workforce is equipped with the necessary skills for diverse sectors. This empowers individuals to contribute to a variety of industries, reducing dependency on any single sector.

Finally,  Maldives can take advantage of its strong global branding as a tourist destination to promote eco-tourism, cultural tourism, and health and wellness tourism. Highlighting the country’s unique cultural heritage and promoting sustainable and nature-friendly tourism can attract a different demographic of travelers. 

Besides dependence on tourism, Maldives presents other obstacles to diversification such as limited land area and regulatory challenges, to which we could add threats such as climate change and economic volatility. In a country with such characteristics, despite the barriers, economic diversification is not just an option but a necessity to build a resilient, sustainable, and prosperous future. 

By embracing various sectors and implementing strategic measures, Maldives can navigate beyond its tourism dependency and achieve a more balanced and stable economy.